Garret uncovers the map collection

Maps are an incredible tool in understanding the world. Vast swathes of land can be digested in a matter of minutes. Imagine how long it would take to describe every twist and turn of a border, every wind of a road, every village, town and city in the detail a map conveys. Their use stretches from education to governance, warfare to commerce. Hence for archives, maps provide a precious source by which we can investigate the past. Where were people making maps of? Who was making them and when? What type of map was it? All of these questions and more arise when studying maps.

The Cambridge African Studies Centre Library is lucky enough to possess a collection of around 250 such maps, which we are in the process of documenting and archiving. They range widely, including as diverse topics as tourist and military maps. Whilst a new gem in our collection, it certainly is a challenging one for a Centre more used to books and papers to deal with!

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As with most of our collection, there is a distinct colonial slant to the maps we possess. Whilst we don’t have records of who donated the maps, they almost all originate in various colonial offices, or as educational tools. Maps far more prevalent  in the late 19th and early 20th century. The many exploratory expeditions across the ‘undiscovered’ world – as with David Livingstone for instance – uncovered discoveries that demanded proper documentation. And those colonial officers who followed these first explorers documented the lands that they ruled. As such, there are many fascinating maps of Africa in our collection, of which we’ve picked out some our highlights of our archiving so far.

The first is a beautiful map produced by the government of Rhodesia, modern day Zambia, in 1964 which, claiming to be comprehensive, details all the journeys of Europeans in Rhodesia prior to 1890. What’s more, on the reverse is a full list of those Europeans who visited the area in that same timeframe, beginning as early as the 16th century with the first Portuguese explorers. It’s just a shame that this list would be obscured during the display of the map itself! The maps clear purpose is educational, but the focus on Europeans, to the exclusion of any mention of the natives, does add an additional layer of interest to the map. Having been printed in 1964, it seems plausible that it could have been used to legitimise the European presence in Rhodesia in the face of strong anti-colonial feeling, by emphasising the long European presence in the country. Whilst just conjecture, it is amongst the many interesting questions raised by these maps.

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Our collection has also been left various French maps made by the Institut Geographique National, including a set concerning Algeria made around 1962. Again, these maps are gorgeous (though that might just be me…), detailing the vast expanse of the Sahara, which is less empty than you might think! Their compilation during, and publication at the end of, the Algerian war, in which France reluctantly retreated, suggests that they did not plan well their withdrawal, with at least some government departments expecting to continue their presence in the country.

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Finally, we discovered several fascinating hand-drawn maps which detailed various land-disputes in the Gold Coast, modern day Ghana. These maps are mostly drawn up by a certain Ernest S. S. Woods of the 2nd Surveyors Brigade – an individual touch not often found in cartography. For colonial historians these documents provide an interesting perspective on Ghanaian compliance with, and possible use of, the British legal system. Furthermore, it gives an unflattering view of British justice, which is so often touted – however spuriously – as one of the greatest benefits of British rule. The document, which was signed off by Woods, the surveyor, in 1922, was then signed off by the court in 1928 – 6 years later! But the maps we have in our collection gives a sense of the scale of the task the British authorities faced – incredibly detailed and accurate maps had to be drawn up to resolve complex conflicts amongst their new subjects across vast areas.

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Maps were an important tool for the coloniser. They demarcated international boundaries – however arbitrary – surveyed lands for for governments based far away in Europe, and detailed natural resources to utilise – to give just a taster of all the flavours of maps we’ve found. With several large wads to go, be sure to check our Twitter feed for any other gems we uncover!

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Garret Shannon has kindly given his time to the African Studies Library before starting his degree at Durham in October

The Adventure Doesn’t Stop Now.

I have been volunteering in the Centre of African Studies Library since November 2016. Today, this incredible experience comes to an end and I wanted to share with you what it felt like to be part of this great journey.

When I first started, last November, everything seemed brilliant. Today, I still have the same feeling and, while I am trying to do my retrospection, I am looking all around me, trying to remember all the details that have kept me happy for months. It can be a chair scraping the floor, the sound of a keyboard, or a book being moved. It’s raining and we can hear the wind – and I will miss all of that. I was happy to volunteer a few hours every week ; it was not a lot, it was not a huge amount of time, but it felt like home every time I went into the Library, and it will still feel like home even after I leave.

During these few months, I met Dr. Audrey Richards whilst I went through her pamphlet donations, and her own research papers. I met her a second time when Dr. Ray Abrahams came to talk about her, as a friend. And this experience was revealing about what you can learn, the two very different ways to get to know someone ; with her written works, I felt close to the professional, the anthropologist who will never be forgotten. By talking with Dr. Abrahams, I felt I was discovering the human being behind these interesting thoughts.

I am currently working on documents about race relations in South Africa, and I had to organise the documents into different boxes by subject area to find my way back to some kind of understanding. In this case, I found out a lot about politics, struggling people fighting for their rights, and social balance.  The feeling you get when you deal with political statements and documents such as these is powerful ; you know that these documents went through other hands. Fighting hands, revolutionary hands, and idealist hands. Sadly, I will not be able to finish my work – but I hope these feelings will be shared by the one who will complete this collection.

Even if leaving the Centre of African Studies Library makes me deeply melancholic, I am raring to start my Internship in Schlumberger Center of Research, because I am sure to earn useful skills that will lead me where I want, and need, to be.

I am so grateful for everything I know, everything I’ve learnt and discovered, and for the brilliant people I had the pleasure to meet. I am lucky to have been guided by someone exceptional, who gave me the taste of a profession and who, in many ways and with a fine honesty, made me stronger and ready to build my career path. Also, I believe that volunteering has been the most beautiful experience I’ve ever had : so go outside, give a helping hand because you might discover many attributes about yourself you didn’t even know were there in the first place.

This experience is over, but the adventure doesn’t stop now.

What about you ?

Ophélia Labardacq

Ophelia B&W july 2017

The Dr Audrey Richards’ pamphlet collection – as detailed by Ophelia, volunteer @AfrStudiesLib

From the start, the huge amount of knowledge contained in the Audrey Richards’ donation boxes was obvious. As a new volunteer at the Centre of African Studies Library, I felt impressed (and a little bit nervous) when I first saw these papers, results of long years of research, and many different collaborations. In other words, it was a truly honorary pleasure to get to touch what I had in front of me and to discover Audrey Richards’ centres of interests.

The papers had to be listed and, if it was tricky at the beginning, I have to say I had the time of my life with these five boxes (Patrick Swayze was sadly elsewhere). Little by little, I felt I started to discover Dr. Audrey Richards, not only as the scientist we know within her books and research, but the person too : a person, with her very own interests and passions who kept for years papers and books which were sent to her. Going over her donation boxes made me feel special in a particular way, it was a chance to get to know someone who did so much in her life without even talking to her. It was like a big puzzle, and I wanted to gradually add its pieces. So yes, I was twitchy when I first started to open these boxes ; I was twitchy because I didn’t want to make any mistakes ; I was twitchy because eh, I was (and still am) a newbie so it was likely I would do something wrong. It took me some time, it took me some books, it took me some papers, to really understand what was going on and what I had in my hands. I was not meant to be an archives factory ; I was meant to see, to touch, to read and – most important – to enjoy that.

The first box I needed to catalogue was called MS RICH 2 (MS RICH 1 was fortuitously found soon after that). This box, along with the previous one, was an anthology of everything that didn’t really fit in the other boxes. From a chapter about Marriage in Northern Rhodesia to an article around Witchcraft and Sorcery, I think I had little stars in my eyes by the end of the day. What was brilliant was the diversity contained in one simple cardboard box; some papers were with annotations, some not, some were written in English, some were written in French… Two other boxes, South Africa and East Africa, were more structured in their composition as they were consolidated around specific parts of Africa. But fear not, they were as diversified as the first ones, touching a lot of different subjects (political, social, cultural). Another box, the last one, was called General ; although there were not any specific locations, all the articles and papers found inside were about customs and social systems.

Then, I had to write a short biography about Dr. Audrey Richards and had the opportunity to meet Dr. Ray Abrahams who knew her personally. I had the opportunity to go through his own boxes of donated materials and my very first “impressed-feeling” came back quickly. Meeting such a great Anthropological figure gave me goosebumps (and my cheeks were certainly blushing a bit).

Being a Volunteer at the Centre for African Studies Library is honestly the best professional experience I’ve ever had. It has given me the feeling of being part of something bigger, to help students and researchers by providing them with more resources.  Volunteering has given me more focus in my career path, and I think that everybody should have at least a taste of this great experience.

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Ophélia Labardacq is a volunteer at the African Studies Library, she will start an internship at the Schlumberger Institute in August, alongside starting her Masters in Library & Information Management at Sheffield.

For more information on this archive collection, visit the “Featured Archive Collection” box on our LibGuide.

 

Super-Impressive! My first Cambridge Libraries Conference

This is an extremely belated account of the fantastic day I had at the Cambridge Libraries 2017 Conference, the theme of which was “Are you a Library Superhero?”. As a newcomer to the world of library work and information science, this was an excellent opportunity to learn more about a field in which I plan to forge a career in.

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Source: https://twitter.com/librarianerrant/status/816933168704090112/photo/1?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw

With all of the nervous excitement of a newbie, I met with Jenni, Victoria and David from CfAS in the crowded meeting hall (and availed myself of some of the freebies on display) before settling down for a worthy introduction to the conference and the first keynote address, presented by Dr. Jeremy Knox. This was an interesting and informative presentation into emerging digital technologies and the challenges and opportunities they might present in higher education (and the provision thereof). Concepts of “openness” and automation were explored via the advantages and pitfalls of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and “teacherbots”, and the session culminated in an amusing Q & A when somebody respectfully pointed out that the nature of Dr. Knox’ topic meant that he didn’t really need to have physically attended the conference!

My first chosen parallel session was the “Tracker Project”, a very lively presentation given by members of the FutureLib Innovation Programme. This was definitely one of my favourite presentations, partly for a very entertaining delivery but also because this provided me with my first moment of clarity into the sheer breadth of things library staff have to consider when delivering their services to students, and was a fascinating insight into the search behaviours of students, and their perception of class marks, library layouts and also of their own confidence in their ability to navigate the library successfully. The simple but always brilliant solutions proposed to assist students in their navigation also provided food for thought.

My second parallel session was presented by Bridget Warrington, the Managing Conservator of the Cambridge Colleges’ Conservation Consortium. I had signed up for this session as I wanted to learn more about this area; the specialised and scientific approaches to conservation and preservation were most impressive, ranging from environmental monitoring to conservation and storage assessment surveys, not to mention the fascinating work of the repairs of the items themselves.

Bridget presented some standout projects they had handled, including the blindfold and an eye-glass that had belonged to Terry Waite during his captivity in Beirut, but the highlight for me as a biologist was the letters from Charles Darwin, complete with minute and beautifully drawn sketches of insects scattered around the text- was there anything that man couldn’t do?

The final keynote speech was delivered by Emma Coonan, who will almost certainly need no introduction to anybody likely to be reading this. What to say, at this late stage of writing that has not already been said? Judging by the enthusiastically positive reactions of seasoned conference attendees, future keynote speakers will have a lot to live up to- or perhaps they could just get Emma to speak every year…

The day closed with several lightning speeches. In some respects this was the most interesting part of the day for me, and not just because I was due to get onstage! Presented by Jenni Skinner, Victoria and I spoke a little about our volunteering at the African Studies library, a rather nervous two minutes for yours truly!

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Not nervous at all, honest! Source: https://twitter.com/hashtag/camlibs17?src=hash 

The other lightning talks gave a swift but broad outline of the realities of modern library life. We saw how some people end up- through accident or design- specialising in particular areas, such as Moodle; or the sterling efforts of library staff to continue to provide quality service under a range of difficult conditions- and in the case of the Medical Library’s “Vanishing training room” to innovate their methods and actually increase their output. The sheer scale of skills required by some library staff was memorably summed up by the following slide:

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Source: https://twitter.com/MegWestbury 

The real value for me of these talks and others was the insight they gave into working in library environments- the challenges, the setbacks, the rewards and the great humour and intelligence of staff from all of these different libraries. It was also, as a newcomer to the field, reassuring to hear that so many people did not necessarily consider themselves experts in their respective fields, and that they were very often teaching themselves entirely new concepts and practices in order to provide the best possible services; and to hear that people I would consider to be settled and confident in their roles, often have moments of self-doubt and reflection- I heard the words “imposter syndrome” more than once- perhaps the spirit of earlier presentations about success and failure facilitated such honest, enjoyable and encouraging discussions.

On every level, this conference was a fantastic introduction to Cambridge Libraries and the amazing people within them; I hope to attend next year with more knowledge and experience under my belt. Well done everybody!

John Hennessy – volunteer at African Studies Library, part-time library assistant at SPS Library

 

Volunteering at the CfAS Library: Adventures in the Archives

I have recently been lucky enough to have been able to volunteer at the Centre for African Studies Library, and honestly, it is difficult to know where to begin, or end in describing my experience!

My initial expectations were that I would be doing nothing more complicated than tidying and re-shelving books, perhaps fetching books upon request, which to be honest I was rather looking forward to- I have always loved libraries and books- but the reality was far more interesting and entertaining than I had expected…

I began by checking through materials donated to the library to check for potential duplicate items, using the Library Search system, which proved interesting as it provided me with the opportunity to learn more about the various libraries and the accessibility (or lack of!) of items, and more about cataloguing systems and procedures. Later that day, the library manager received an external request from an international academic, and I made my first visit to the archives. Working in the archives has by far been one of the most interesting and varied aspects of my time here, which really should be unsurprising, containing as it does an almost endlessly fascinating variety of items; governmental reports and commissions, both colonial and post colonial relating to land reforms, human rights, economic and agricultural policies; investigations and assessments of potential threats to the then status quo, such as communism or local unrests; personal notebooks and correspondences, which with time and patience could be found in their entirety, collated and ordered into a complete narrative; poetry, literature, local media items; photographs, slides, old tape cassettes and vinyl records of local music.

A photo album from the earliest days of photography (ca. 1878- 1882), and a collection of visual and audio materials from the archives

One particularly exciting find- on my first day- was a copy of a very old manuscript (written in 1819!) written in Arabic, which had been the subject of a request from an external academic, and one which was entirely due to luck, not judgement on my part! It is the opportunity to work with unique and beautiful items such as this that makes the archives such a rewarding aspect of my volunteer experience.

Examples from a copy of an Arabic manuscript entitled Kanzal-Awlād and authored by        Sambo Kulwa (Muḥammad Sambo b. Modibbo Aḥmad b. Mujayli), authored in 1818-19,        from our archives.

Once the box of requested materials were located, it was back upstairs to investigate the contents, and to create a descriptive record and finding aid; this required identifying the contents- not always straight forward if the cover was missing or the title compromised in some other way, or if published in a local script or language; often seeking out the date of publication- again, not always obvious without performing a little investigative research- sometimes even the author may not be clearly identified! Searching out and finding this information- or at least trying to provide as much information as possible from often disparate documents in various states of repair or completeness- was a fascinating and very satisfying experience in itself, but knowing that you have contributed in some small way to creating an academic resource that may be a useful future aid to students and researchers adds an extra feeling of a job worth doing.

Volunteering at the Centre for African Studies Library was not at all what I expected- it was even better- a wonderful and educational experience, and one I hope to repeat!

(John Hennessy, Library Volunteer)

New @AfrStudiesLib resource: Extracts 1876-1901 concerning Uganda

The Centre of African Studies Library is pleased to announce that a ‘Description’ and detailed ‘Finding Aid’ are now available for the following archived resource via the library’s Libguide:  http://libguides.cam.ac.uk/africanstudies/archives 

The ‘Intelligencer’ was an annual publication pertaining mostly to missionaries and their activities published in London by the Church Missionary Society. As a source of reprinted private letters or extracts of official public statements, newspaper articles and parliamentary debates, their value to historians of religion or perhaps to the historiography of imperialism are significant.

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Letter from Alexander Murdoch Mackay inspired by the legendary exploits of Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Morton Stanley; reprinted in the Church Missionary Intelligencer (May 1890, p.318).  The section is entitled ‘Alexander Mackay in Memoriam’ and was written soon after his passing away on February 4th, 1890, near the southern shores of Lake Victoria.  He had died from a malarial fever.

What has recently been named ‘Extracts concerning Uganda’ were originally compiled by the late Professor D. A. LowThey were selected by him for their connection to the region that would become the British Uganda Protectorate in 1894 and are distinguished by their unique collection of material from historical sources spanning a significant period in the history of Uganda. This resource consists mostly of reprinted correspondence (often with introductions and commentaries by the various editors) and begins with a proposal for one of the earliest of the organized missions to the area around Lake Victoria.

Professor D.A. Low was the Emeritus Smuts Professor of History of the British Commonwealth at the University of Cambridge.  During his academic career, he published many works on imperialism (and the nationalist struggles that followed) including the following:

Low, D.A. (2009) Fabrication of Empire: the British and the Uganda Kingdoms, 1890-1902 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

His collection of extracts is thus valued and have been preserved in the Centre of African Studies Library archives.  They are an extremely useful resource available to students and researchers upon request.  Indeed, I was recently required to delve into this wonderful collection myself when researching and compiling the associated ‘description and finding aid’ for library users.  The roller-coaster ride of events contained within certainly proved enlightening:  a steady stream of observations and proposals rapidly appeared to gain momentum, building quickly to an ominous river in my mind as I followed the turbulence of Ugandan history; through those Western eyes at least.  Although they only form part of the story, some of the letters are written with a certain passion and wit that excites the imagination or perhaps the latent adventurer that may lurk within us all: and it was interesting to note that the words of those first courageous men – that had accepted the fateful recommendation of Henry Morton Stanley to save the Kingdom of Buganda, ‘Pearl of Africa’ – are later joined by a trickle of female voices, clamouring to be heard.

Guest Blogger: David Radcliffe

(David currently works for the Centre of South Asian Studies Library via Cambridge University’s Temporary Employment Service.  He is also currently a volunteer at the Centre of African Studies Library.)

“There’s just something hypnotic about maps” (Ken Jennings, Jeopardy contestant) – David’s labour of love @AfrStudiesLib

Here’s a bit of trivia for you…Did you know that the international boundary separating Botswana and Zimbabwe is one of only a handful that includes an arc?

It’s known as the “Tuli Circle” and it encloses what is now a protected safari area administered by The Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority.  (Incidentally, one could also straddle the elliptic edge of St. Peter’s Square in Rome, thus placing one foot in the Vatican City and the other in the territory of Italy.)

Deciding to consult a map of the area, you would then probably question why the Tuli Circle marks such a curious deviation from the natural frontier offered by the Shashe river. Well, its origin dates back to the colonial period and a land grant from a Botswanan King to the British South Africa Company.  There are even accounts alledging that Cecil Rhodes may have made a rather unusual contribution to the history of cartography – by drawing around the side of his compass to delineate what would become a cattle free zone (probably designed to protect his herds beyond the river from a local outbreak of a viral disease known as “rinderpest”.)

How do I know all this?  Well, it was mentioned to me in passing by a colleague archivist here in Cambridge whilst I was consulting a map of Rhodesia at the Centre of African Studies.  One of my various ongoing tasks has been to gradually compile a detailed list of the maps the library holds (only a small part of a much wider scheme to increase accessibility to the vast range of resources preserved in the basement stores).

As the photograph below testifies, I rapidly became submerged in a sea of maps: lands were sorted; topography identified; those mountainous stacks of paper soared ever upward, forming chains across the floor as the Head Librarian surveyed the scene through her office window!

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Yet it’s partly a labour of love.  Everyone gets excited about maps…don’t they?  As an occasional amateur historian dealing in facts, I may have to finally concede that pirates probably didn’t hide their treasure hordes and mark the spot on a parchment or scroll.  Nevertheless, throughout recorded time a whole range of dedicated people have marked all sorts of features on fascinating (and sometimes beautiful) documents.

The University Library actually has a dedicated “Map Room”.  But whilst the collection at African Studies is certainly more modest, it also includes its fair share of unusual specimens: maps by African city planning authorities; maps that document land use, land distribution or expected annual rainfall; others provide a snapshot of population levels, record internal immigration patterns and even the forced resettlement of tribal communities.  One of my personal favourites is an aeronautical chart for pilots needing to navigate their way over East Africa that dates back to WWII.

Anyway, this is very much a work in progress…so watch this space for future updates!

Guest Blogger: David Radcliffe

(David currently works for the Centre of South Asian Studies Library via Cambridge University’s Temporary Employment Service.  He is also currently a volunteer at the Centre of African Studies Library.)